Bibliography

A vanitas scene featuring a skull, books, candles, candle holders, documents and a sand glass Edward Collier. A Vanitas Still Life. c.1699. Auckland Art Gallery, 1887/1/8. © Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tamaki, New Zealand.

Contents of this Article

Introduction

This bibliography reflects the works used to develop the background pages provided as part of this website. It includes the main modern literatures on each topic, and older works where these continue to provide the best source for relevant information. When primary sources have been used in developing these pages, they have been footnoted on the page itself. This bibliography is not intended to be a fully comprehensive guide to the historiography of eighteenth-century London, but a starting point for further research when using the documents on this website. Place of publication is London, unless otherwise stated.

Local Government

St Botolph Aldgate

  • Atkinson, Arthur G. B. St Botolph Aldgate: The Story of a City Parish. 1898.
  • Beattie, J. M. Policing and Punishment in London, 1660-1750: Urban Crime and the Limits of Terror. Oxford, 2001.
  • Champion, Justin. London’s Dreaded Visitation: The Social Geography of the Great Plague in 1665. 1995.
  • Cross, Pam. The Operation of the Workhouse in the Parish of St Botolph Aldgate, c. 1734-1834. BA, Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge, 1990.
  • Griffiths, Paul. Lost Londons: Change, Crime and Control in the Capital City 1550-1660. Cambridge, 2008.
  • Harris, Andrew T. Policing the City: Crime and Legal Authority in London, 1780-1840. Columbus, Ohio, 2004.
  • Herlan, Ronald W. Social Articulation and the Configuration of Parochial Poverty in London on the Eve of the Restoration. Guildhall Studies in London History, 11 (1976), pp.43-53.
  • Jones, Philip E. and Judges, Arthur V. London Population in the Late 17th Century. Economic History Review, 6 (1935-6), pp. 45-63.
  • Jordan, W. K. The Charities of London 1480-1660. 1960.
  • Merry, Mark and Baker, Philip. "For the house her self and one servant": Family and Household in Later Seventeenth-century London. The London Journal, 34, 3 (2009), pp. 205-233.
  • Murphy, Elaine. The Metropolitan Pauper Farms 1722-1834. London Journal, 27, 1 (2002), pp. 1-18.
  • Power, M. J. The East and West in Early-Modern London. In Ives, E.W. et al, eds, Wealth and Power in Tudor England: Essays Presented to S.T. Bindoff. 1978, pp. 167-185.
  • Power, M. J. East London Housing in the Seventeenth Century. In Clark, Peter and Slack, Paul, eds, Crisis and Order in English Towns. 1972, pp. 237-62.
  • Power, M.J.. The Social Topography of Restoration London. In Beier, A.L. and Finlay, Roger, eds, London, 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis. 1986, pp. 199-223.
  • Schwarz, L. D. Conditions of Life and Work in London, c. 1770-1820, with Special Reference to East London. PhD, Oxford, 1976.
  • Shoemaker, R. B. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex. Cambridge, 1991.
  • Spence, Craig. London in the 1690s: A Social Atlas. 2000.
  • Thompson, H P. Thomas Bray. 1954.

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St Clement Danes

  • Alexander, James. The City Revealed: An Analysis of the 1692 Poll Tax and the 1693 4s Aid in London. In Schürer, Kevin; Arkell, Tom, eds, Surveying the People: The Interpretation and Use of Document Sources for the Study of Population in the Later Seventeenth Century. Oxford, 1992, pp. 181-200.
  • Diprose, John. Some Account of the Parish of St Clement Danes. 1868-76.
  • George, M. Dorothy. London Life in the Eighteenth Century. 4th edn, 1965.
  • Honeyman, Katrina. Child Workers in England, 1780-1820: Parish Apprentices and the Making of the Early Industrial Labour Force. Aldershot, 2007.
  • Innes, Joanna. The Protestant Carpenter - William Payne of Bell Yard (c.1718-82): The Life and Times of a London Informing Constable. In Joanna Innes. Inferior Politics: Social Problems and Social Policies in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Oxford, 2009, pp. 279-342.
  • Schwarz, Leonard D. London in the Age of Industrialisation: Entrepreneurs, Labour Force and Living Conditions, 1700-1850. Cambridge, 1992.
  • Sharp, Richard. The Religious and Political Character of the Parish of St. Clement Danes. In Clark, Jonathan and Erskine-Hill, Howard, eds, Samuel Johnson in Historical Context. Basingstoke, 2002, pp.44-54.
  • Shoemaker, Robert. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex, c.1660-1725. Cambridge, 1991.
  • Spence, Craig. London in the 1690s: A Social Atlas. 2000.

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St Dionis Backchurch

  • Boulton, Jeremy. Microhistory in Early Modern London: John Bedford (1601-1667). Continuity and Change, 22, 1 (2007), pp. 113-141.
  • George, M. Dorothy. London Life in the Eighteenth Century. 1925, 1965.
  • Glass, D.V., ed. London Inhabitants Within the Walls, 1695. London Record Society, 2, 1966.
  • Hyde, Ralph. Ward Maps of the City of London. London Topographical Society, 1999.
  • Jones, P.E. and Judges, A.V. London Population in the Late Seventeenth Century. Economic History Review, 6 (1935), pp. 45-63.
  • Power, M.J. The Social Topography of Restoration London. In Beier, A. L. and Finlay, Roger, eds, London 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis. 1986, pp. 199-223.
  • Reddaway, T.F. The Rebuilding of the London after the Great Fire. 1940.
  • Spence, Craig. London in the 1690s: A Social Atlas. 2000.
  • Winnett, A.R. A History of St Dionis Backchurch and St Dionis, Parson’s Green. 1935.

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City of London

  • Beattie, J. M. London Crime and the Making of the "Bloody Code", 1689-1718. In Davison, L., et al, eds, Stilling the Grumbling Hive: The Response to Social and Economic problems in England, 1689-1750. Stroud, 1992, pp. 49-76.
  • Beattie, J. M. Policing and Punishment in London, 1660-1750: Urban Crime and the Limits of Terror. Oxford, 2001.
  • Gray, Drew D. Crime, Prosecution and Social Relations: The Summary Courts of the City of London in the Eighteenth Century. Basingstoke, 2009.
  • Harris, Andrew T. Policing the City: Crime and Legal Authority in London, 1780-1840. Columbus, Ohio, 2004.
  • Horwitz, Henry. Party in a Civic Context: London from the Exclusion Crisis to the Fall of Walpole. In Jones, Clyve, ed., Britain in the First Age of Party 1680-1750. 1987, pp. 173-194.
  • De Krey, Gary. A Fractured Society: The Politics of London in the First Age of Party, 1688-1715. Oxford, 1985.

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Middlesex

  • Dowdell, E. G. A Hundred Years of Quarter Sessions. Cambridge, 1932.
  • Hardy, W. J., ed. Middlesex County Records. Calendar of the Sessions Books 1689-1709. 1905.
  • Jeaffreson, J. C., ed. Middlesex County Records (4 vols). 1886-1892.
  • Shoemaker, R. B. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex. Cambridge, 1991.

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Southwark

  • Beattie, J. M. Crime and the Courts in England 1660-1800. Princeton, 1986.
  • Boulton, Jeremy. Neighbourhood and Society: A London Suburb in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge, 1987.

Westminster

  • Harvey, Charles; Green, Edmund and Corfield, Penelope. The Westminster Historical Database: Voters, Social Structure and Electoral Behaviour. Bristol, 1998.
  • Manchee, William. The Westminster City Fathers (The Burgess Court of Westminster) 1585-1901. 1924.
  • Merritt, J. F. The Social World of Early Modern Westminster: Abbey, Court and Community, 1525-1640. Manchester, 2005.
  • Reynolds, Elaine. Before the Bobbies: The Night Watch and Police Reform in Metropolitan London, 1720-1830. 1998.
  • Rogers, Nicholas. Aristocratic Clientage, Trade and Dependency: Popular Politics in Pre-Radical Westminster. Past and Present 61 (1973), pp. 70-106.
  • Rogers, Nicholas. Whigs and Cities: Popular Politics in the Age of Walpole and Pitt. Oxford, 1989.
  • Shoemaker, R. B. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex. Cambridge, 1991, chap. 10.

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Online Resources

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Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice: An Overview

  • Beattie, J. M. Policing and Punishment in London, 1660-1750: Urban Crime and the Limits of Terror. Oxford, 2001.
  • Connors, Richard. The Grand Inquest of the Nation: Parliamentary Committees and Social Policy in Mid-Eighteenth-Century England. Parliamentary History 14 (1995), pp. 301-13.
  • Innes, Joanna. Managing the Metropolis: London’s Social Problems and their Control, c. 1660-1830. Proceedings of the British Academy, 107 (2001), pp. 53-79.
  • Innes, Joanna. Parliament and the Shaping of Eighteenth-Century English Social Policy. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., 40 (1990), pp. 63-92
  • King, Peter. Crime and Law in England, 1750-1840: Remaking Justice from the Margins. Cambridge, 2006.
  • McGowen, Randall. The Problem of Punishment in Eighteenth-Century England. In Simon Devereaux and Paul Griffiths, eds, Penal Practice and Culture, 1500-1900: Punishing the English. Basingstoke, 2004, pp. 210-231.
  • Radzinowicz, Leon. History of English Criminal Law and its Administration from 1750 (5 vols). London and Oxford, 1948-9, esp. vol. 4.
  • Smith, Greg. Violent Crime and the Public Weal in England, 1700-1900. In McMahon, Richard, ed., Crime, Law and Popular Culture in Europe 1500-1900. Cullompton, 2008, pp. 190-218.
  • Webb, Sidney and Beatrice. English Local Government from the Revolution to the Municipal Corporations Act: The Parish and the County. 1906.

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Prosecutors and Litigants

  • Beattie, J. M. Crime and the Courts in England 1660-1800. Princeton, 1986.
  • Beresford, M. W. The Common Informer, the Penal Statutes, and Economic Regulation. Economic History Review, new series, x (1957-58), pp. 221-37.
  • Brewer, John. The Wilkites and the Law, 1763-74. In John Brewer and John Styles, eds, An Ungovernable People? The English and their Law in the seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. 1980, pp. 128-71.
  • Gray, Drew D. Crime, Prosecution and Social Relations: The Summary Courts of the City of London in the Eighteenth Century. Basingstoke, 2009.
  • Haagen, Paul. Eighteenth-Century English Society and the Debt Law. In Cohen, S. and Scull, A., eds, Social Control and the State. Oxford, 1983.
  • Hay, Douglas. Prosecution and Power: Malicious Prosecution in the English Courts, 1750-1850. In Hay, D. and Snyder, F., eds, Policing and Prosecution in Britain 1750-1850. Oxford, 1989, pp. 343-96.
  • Howson, Gerald. Thief-Taker General: The Rise and Fall of Jonathan Wild. 1970.
  • Innes, Joanna. Inferior Politics: Social Problems and Social Policies in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Oxford, 2009.
  • Landau, Norma. Indictment for Fun and Profit: A Prosecutor's Reward at Eighteenth-Century Quarter Sessions. Law and History Review, 17 (1999), pp. 507-36.
  • Moore, Lucy. The Thieves' Opera: The Remarkable Lives and Deaths of Jonathan Wild, Thief-Taker, and Jack Sheppard, House-Breaker. 1997.
  • Paley, Ruth. Thief-Takers in London in the Age of the McDaniel Gang, c. 1745-1754. In Hay, D. and Snyder, F., eds, Policing and Prosecution in Britain 1750-1850. Oxford, 1989, pp. 301-42.
  • Philips. David. Good Men to Associate and Bad Men to Conspire: Associations for the Prosecution of Felons in England, 1760-1860. In Hay, D. and Snyder, F., eds, Policing and Prosecution in Britain 1750-1850. Oxford, 1989, pp. 113-70.
  • Rogers, Nicholas. Impressment and the Law in Eighteenth-Century Britain. In Landau, Norma, ed., Law, Crime and English society, 1660-1830. Cambridge, 2002, pp. 71-94.
  • Shoemaker, Robert. The London Mob: Violence and Disorder in Eighteenth-Century England. 2004.
  • Shoemaker, Robert. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex. Cambridge, 1991.
  • Shore, Heather. 'The Reckoning': Disorderly Women, Informing Constables, and the Westminster Justices, 1727-33. Social History, 34 (2009), pp. 409-27.
  • Wales, Tim. Thief-Takers and their Clients in Later Stuart London. In Griffiths, P. and Jenner, M.S.R., eds, Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London. Manchester, 2000, pp. 67-84.

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Policing

  • Armitage, Gilbert. The History of the Bow Street Runners, 1729-1829. 1932.
  • Babington, A. A House in Bow Street: Crime and the Magistracy in London, 1740-1881. 1969.
  • Battestin, Martin C. with Battestin, Ruthe R. Henry Fielding: A Life. 1989.
  • Beattie, John M. Early Detection: The Bow Street Runners in Late Eighteenth-Century London. In Emsley, Clive and Shpayer-Makov, Haia, eds, Police Detectives in History, 1750-1950. Aldershot, 2006, pp. 15-32.
  • Beattie, J. M. Policing and Punishment in London, 1660-1750: Urban Crime and the Limits of Terror. Oxford, 2001.
  • Dabhoiwala, Faramerz. Sex, Social Relations and the Law in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century London. In Braddick, Michael and Walter, John, eds, Negotiating Power in Early Modern Society: Order, Hierarchy and Subordination in Britain and Ireland. Cambridge, 2001, pp. 85-101, 262-67.
  • Gray, Drew D. Crime, Prosecution and Social Relations: The Summary Courts of the City of London in the Eighteenth Century. Basingstoke, 2009.
  • Harris, Andrew T. Policing and Public Order in the City of London, 1784-1815. London Journal, 28 (2003), pp. 1-20.
  • Harris, Andrew T. Policing the City: Crime and Legal Authority in London, 1780-1840. Columbus, Ohio, 2004.
  • Innes, Joanna. Inferior Politics: Social Problems and Social Policies in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Oxford, 2009.
  • Paley, Ruth. An Imperfect, Inadequate and Wretched System? Policing London before Peel. Criminal Justice History 10 (1989), pp. 95-130.
  • Reynolds, Elaine. Before the Bobbies: The Night Watch and Police Reform in Metropolitan London, 1720-1830. Stanford, California, 1998.
  • Reynolds, Elaine. Sir John Fielding, Sir Charles Whitworth, and the Westminster Night Watch Act, 1770-75. Criminal Justice History, 16 (2002), pp. 1-29.
  • Shoemaker, Robert. The London Mob: Violence and Disorder in Eighteenth-Century England. 2004, ch. 2.
  • Styles, John. Sir John Fielding and the Problem of Criminal Investigation in Eighteenth-Century England. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, 33 (1983), pp. 127-49.

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Reformation of Manners Campaigns

  • Dabhoiwala, Faramerz. Sex, Social Relations and the Law in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century London. In Braddick, Michael and Walter, John, eds, Negotiating Power in Early Modern Society: Order, Hierarchy and Subordination in Britain and Ireland. Cambridge, 2001, pp. 85-101, 262-67.
  • Dabhoiwala, Faramerz. Sex and Societies for Moral Reform, 1688-1800. Journal of British Studies, 46:2 (2007), pp. 290-319.
  • Davison, Lee. Experiments in the Social Regulation of Industry: Gin Legislation, 1729-1751. In Davison, L., et al., eds, Stilling the Grumbling Hive: The Response to Social and Economic Problems in England, 1689-1750. Stroud, 1992, pp. 25-48.
  • Gray, Drew D. Crime, Prosecution and Social Relations: The Summary Courts of the City of London in the Eighteenth Century. Basingstoke, 2009.
  • Innes, Joanna. Inferior Politics: Social Problems and Social Policies in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Oxford, 2009.
  • Innes, Joanna. Politics and Morals: The Reformation of Manners Movement in Later Eighteenth-Century England. In Hellmuth, Eckhart, ed., The Transformation of Political Culture: England and Germany in the Late Eighteenth Century. Oxford and New York, 1990, pp. 57-118.
  • Radzinowicz, Leon. A History of English Criminal Law and its Administration From 1750. Vol. 3, Cross-currents in the Movement for Reform of the Police. 1956, part III.
  • Roberts, M. J. D. Making English Morals: Voluntary Association and Moral Reform in England, 1787-1886. Cambridge, 2004.
  • Shoemaker, Robert. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex. Cambridge, 1991, chapter 9.
  • Shoemaker, Robert. Reforming the City: The Reformation of Manners Campaign in London, 1690-1738. In Davison, L., et al., eds, Stilling the Grumbling Hive: The Response to Social and Economic Problems in England, 1689-1750. Stroud, 1992, pp. 99-120.
  • Shore, Heather. 'The Reckoning': Disorderly Women, Informing Constables, and the Westminster Justices, 1727-33. Social History, 34 (2009), pp. 409-27.
  • Warner, Jessica and Ivis, Frank. "Damn you, you informing bitch": Vox Populi and the Unmaking of the Gin Act of 1736. Journal of Social History, 33 (1999), pp. 299-330.
  • Warner, Jessica, Ivis, Frank and Demers, Andree. A Predatory Social Structure: Informers in Westminster, 1737-1741. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 30 (2000), pp. 617-34.

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Justices of the Peace and the Pre-Trial Process

  • Babington, A. A House in Bow Street: Crime and the Magistracy in London, 1740-1881. 1969.
  • Battestin Martin C., with Battestin, Ruthe R. Henry Fielding: A Life. 1989.
  • Beattie, J. M. Sir John Fielding and Public Justice: The Bow Street Magistrates’ Court, 1754-1780. Law and History Review, 25 (2007), pp. 61-100.
  • Dabhoiwala, Faramerz. Summary Justice in Early Modern London. English Historical Review, 121 (2006), pp. 796-822.
  • Gray, Drew D. Crime, Prosecution and Social Relations: The Summary Courts of the City of London in the Eighteenth Century. Basingstoke, 2009.
  • Gray, Drew. The Regulation of Violence in the Metropolis: the Prosecution of Assault in the Summary Courts, c. 1780-1820. London Journal, 32 (2007), pp. 75-87.
  • Hay, Douglas. Dread of the Crown Office: the English Magistracy and King's Bench, 1740-1800. In Landau, Norma, ed., Law, Crime and English Society, 1660-1830. Cambridge, 2002, pp. 19-45.
  • King, Peter. The Summary Courts and Social Relations in Eighteenth-Century England. Past and Present, 183 (2004), pp. 125-72.
  • Landau, Norma. The Trading Justice's Trade. In Landau, Norma, ed., Law, Crime and English Society, 1660-1830. Cambridge, 2002, pp. 46-70.
  • Paley, Ruth, ed. Justice in Eighteenth-Century Hackney: The Justicing Notebook of Henry Norris. London Record Society, vol. 28, 1991.
  • Paley, Ruth. The Middlesex Justices Act of 1792: Its Origins and Effects. PhD, University of Reading, 1983.
  • Radzinowicz, L. History of English Criminal Law and its Administration from 1750 (5 volumes). 1948-90, esp vols 1-3.
  • Shoemaker, R. B. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex. Cambridge, 1991.
  • Styles, John. Sir John Fielding and the Problem of Criminal Investigation in Eighteenth-Century England. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 5th ser., 33 (1983), pp. 127-49.
  • Webb, Sydney and Beatrice. English Local Government: The Parish and the County. 1906; republished 1963.

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The Courts

  • Beattie, J. M. Policing and Punishment in London, 1660-1750: Urban Crime and the Limits of Terror. Oxford, 2001.
  • Brooks, C. W. Lawyers, Litigation and English Society since 1450. 1998.
  • Dowdell, E. G. A Hundred Years of Quarter Sessions. Cambridge, 1932.
  • Shoemaker, R. B. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex. Cambridge, 1991.

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The Criminal Trial

  • Beattie, J. M. London Juries in the 1690s. In Cockburn, James and Green, Thomas, eds, Twelve Good Men and True: The Criminal Trial Jury in England, 1200-1800. Princeton, New Jersey, 1988, pp.214-253.
  • Beattie, J. M. Scales of Justice: Defence Counsel and the English Criminal Trial in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Law and History Review 9 (1991), pp. 221-67.
  • Crawford, Catherine. Legalizing Medicine: Early Modern Legal Systems and the Growth of Medico-Legal Knowledge. In Clark, M. and Crawford, C., eds, Legal Medicine in History. Cambridge, 1994, pp. 89-116.
  • Forbes, Thomas. Surgeons at the Bailey: English Forensic Medicine to 1878. New Haven, 1986.
  • Gallanis, T. P. The Mystery of Old Bailey Counsel. Cambridge Law Journal, 65 (2006), pp. 159-73.
  • Hay, Douglas. The Class Composition of the Palladium of Liberty: Trial Jurors in the Eighteenth Century. In Cockburn, James and Green, Thomas, eds, Twelve Good Men and True: The Criminal Trial Jury in England, 1200-1800. Princeton, 1988, pp. 305-57.
  • Landsman, S. The Rise of the Contentious Spirit: Adversary Procedure in Eighteenth-Century England. Cornell Law Review 75 (1990), pp. 498-609.
  • Langbein, J. H. The Origins of Adversary Criminal Trial. Oxford, 2003.
  • Lemmings, David. Criminal Trial Procedure in Eighteenth-Century England: The Impact of Lawyers. Journal of Legal History 26 (2005), pp. 73-82.
  • Lemmings, David. Professors of the Law: Barristers and English Legal Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Oxford, 2000.
  • May, Allyson. Advocates and Truth-Seeking in the Old Bailey Courtroom. Journal of Legal History, 26, 1 (2005), pp. 71-77.
  • May, Allyson. The Bar and the Old Bailey, 1750-1850. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 2003.
  • MacKay, Lynn. Why they Stole: Women in the Old Bailey, 1779-1789. Journal of Social History, 32 (1999), pp. 623-40.
  • Shoemaker, R. B. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex. Cambridge, 1991.

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Punishment

  • Beattie, J. M. Crime and the Courts in England 1660-1800. Princeton, 1986.
  • Beattie, J. M. Policing and Punishment in London, 1660-1750: Urban Crime and the Limits of Terror. Oxford, 2001.
  • Brown, Susan. Policing and Privilege: The Resistance to Penal Reform in Eighteenth-Century London. In Goldgar, Anne and Frost, Robert, eds, Institutional Culture in Early Modern Society. Leiden, 2004, pp. 103-30.
  • Devereaux, Simon. Imposing the Royal Pardon: Execution, Transportation and Convict Resistance in London, 1789. Law and History Review, 25 (2007), pp. 101-38.
  • Devereaux, Simon. The Making of the Penitentiary Act, 1775-1779. Historical Journal, 42 (1999), pp. 405-33.
  • Devereaux, Simon. In Place of Death: Transportation, Penal Practices, and the English State, 1770-1830. In Strange, C., ed., Qualities of Mercy: Justice, Punishment, and Discretion. Vancouver, British Columbia, 1996, pp. 52-76
  • Durston, Gregory. Magwitch’s Forbears: Returning from Transportation in Eighteenth-Century London. Australian Journal of Legal History, 9 (2005), pp. 137-58.
  • Ekirch, A. Roger. Bound for America: The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718-1775. Oxford, 1987.
  • Gatrell, V. A. C. The Hanging Tree: Execution and the English People, 1770-1868. Oxford, 1994.
  • King, Peter. Punishing Assault: The Transformation of Attitudes in the English courts. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 27 (1996), pp. 43-74.
  • Linebaugh, Peter. The Tyburn Riot Against the Surgeons. In Hay, D., et al, eds, Albion's Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in Eighteenth-Century England. 1975, pp. 65-117.
  • MacKay, Lynn. Refusing the Royal Pardon: London Capital Convicts and the Reactions of the Courts and the Press, 1789. London Journal, 28 (2003), pp. 21-37.
  • McGowen, Randall. "Making Examples" and the Crisis of Punishment in Mid-Eighteenth-Century England. In Lemmings, David, ed., The British and their Laws in the Eighteenth Century. Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2005, pp. 182-205.
  • McGowen, Randall. The Problem of Punishment in Eighteenth-Century England. In Devereaux, Simon and Griffiths, Paul, eds, Penal Practice and Culture, 1500-1900: Punishing the English. Basingstoke, 2004, pp. 210-231.
  • Oldham, James. On Pleading the Belly: A History of the Jury of Matrons. Criminal Justice History, 6 (1985), pp. 1-64.
  • Shoemaker, R. B. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex. Cambridge, 1991.

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Houses of Correction see also Bridewell

  • Innes, J. Prisons for the Poor: English Bridewells, 1555-1800. In Snyder, F. and Hay, D., eds, Labour, Law and Crime: An Historical Perspective. 1987, pp. 42-122.
  • Shoemaker, R. B. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex. Cambridge, 1991, chap. 7.

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Prisons and Lockups

  • Branch-Johnson, William. The English Prison Hulks. 1957.
  • Brodie, Allan, et al. English Prisons: An Architectural History. Swindon: English Heritage, 2002.
  • Brown, Roger Lee. A History of the Fleet Prison, London: The Anatomy of the Fleet. Studies in British History, 42. Lampeter, 1996.
  • Brown, S. E. Policing and Privilege: The Resistance to Penal Reform in Eighteenth-Century London. In Goldgar, Anne and Frost, Robert, eds, Institutional Culture in Early Modern Society. Leiden, 2004, pp. 103-30.
  • Byrne, Richard. Prisons and Punishments of London. 1929.
  • Campbell, Charles. The Intolerable Hulks. Bowie, Maryland, 1993.
  • Chalklin, C. W. The Reconstruction of London's Prisons 1770-99: An Aspect of the Growth of Georgian London. London Journal 9 (1983), pp. 21-34.
  • Colvin, H. M. et al. The History of the King's Works, 5: 1660-1782. 1976.
  • Crook, Joseph and Port, Michael. The History of the King's Works, 6: 1782-1851. 1973.
  • Davis, Michael T, McCalman, Iain and Parolin, Christina, eds. Newgate in Revolution: An Anthology of Radical Prison Literature in the Age of Revolution. 2005.
  • Devereaux, Simon. The Making of the Penitentiary Act, 1775-1779. Historical Journal, 42 (1999), pp. 405-33.
  • Evans, R. The Fabrication of Virtue: Prison Architecture, 1750-1840. Cambridge, 1982.
  • Griffiths, Arthur George Frederick. The Chronicles of Newgate, 2 vols. 1884.
  • Hardman, Philippa. The Origins of Late Eighteenth-Century Prison Reform in England. PhD, University of Sheffield, 2007.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Down and Out in Eighteenth-Century London. 2004.
  • Kalman, H. D. Rebuilding Newgate Prison. Architectural History, xii (1969), pp. 50-61.
  • McCalman, Iain. Newgate in Revolution: Radical Enthusiasm and Romantic Counterculture. Eighteenth Century Life, 22:1 (1998), pp. 95-110.
  • McConville, S. A History of English Prison Administration, Volume 1, 1750-1877. 1981.
  • Palk, Deirdre, ed. Prisoners' Letters to the Bank of England, 1781-1827. London Record Society vol. 42, 2007.
  • Sheehan, W. H. Finding Solace in Eighteenth-Century Newgate. In Cockburn, J. S., ed., Crime in England 1550-1800. 1977, pp. 229-45.
  • Stroud, Dorothy. The Giltspur Street Compter. Architectural History, 27 (1984), pp. 127-34.
  • Watson, Bruce. The Compter Prisons of London. London Archaeologist, 7 (1993), pp. 115-21.
  • Webb, Sydney and Beatrice. English Prisons Under Local Government. English Local Government, vol. 6. 1922; republished, 1963.
  • White, Jerry. Pain and Degradation in Georgian London: Life in the Marshalsea Prison. History Workshop Journal, 68 (2009), pp. 69-98.

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Bridewell

  • Andrews, Jonathan, and Waddington, Keir. The History of Bethlem. 1997.
  • Cowie, L. W. Bridewell. History Today, 23:5 (1973).
  • Copeland, Alfred. Bridewell Royal Hospital Past and Present. 1888.
  • Dabhoiwala, Faramerz. Summary Justice in Early Modern London. English Historical Review, 121 (2006), 796-822.
  • Griffiths, Paul. Lost Londons: Change, Crime and Control in the Capital City 1550-1660. Cambridge, 2008.
  • Hinkle, William G. A History of Bridewell Prison, 1553-1700. Lampeter, 2006.
  • Innes, J. Prisons for the Poor: English Bridewells, 1555-1800. In Snyder, F. and Hay, D., eds, Labour, Law and Crime: An Historical Perspective. 1987, pp. 42-122.
  • O'Donoghue, E. G. Bridewell Hospital, Palace, Prison, Schools, [1] : From the earliest times to the end of the reign of Elizabeth; [2] : From the death of Elizabeth to modern times. 2 vols. 1923-9.

Online Resources

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Poverty

Poor Relief: An Overview

  • Albers, Jan Maria. Seeds of Contention: Society, Politics and the Church of England in Lancashire, 1689-790. Yale Univeristy Ph.D. thesis, 1988.
  • Andrew, Donna T. Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century. Princeton, 1989.
  • Andrew, Donna T. "To the charitable and humane": Appeals for Assistance in the Eighteenth-Century London Press. In Cunningham, Hugh and Innes, Joanna, eds, Charity, Philanthropy and Reform: From the 1690s to 1850. Basingstoke, 1998, pp. 87-107.
  • Ben-Amos, Ilana Krausman. The Culture of Giving: Informal Support and Gift-Exchange in Early Modern England. Cambridge, 2008.
  • Boulton, Jeremy. "It is extreme necessity that makes me do this": Some "survival strategies" of Pauper Households in London's West End During the Early Eighteenth Century. International Review of Social History, Supplement, 8 (2000), pp. 47-70.
  • Boulton, Jeremy. The Poor Among the Rich: Paupers and the Parish, in the West End, 1600-1724. In Griffiths, Paul and Jenner, Mark S. R., eds, Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London. Manchester, 2000, pp. 197-225.
  • Boulton, Jeremy. Welfare Systems and the Parish Nurse in Early Modern London, 1650-1725. Family & Community History, 10, 2 (2007), pp. 127-51.
  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010.
  • Cunningham, Hugh and Innes, Joanna, eds. Charity, Philanthropy and Reform: From the 1690s to 1850. Basingstoke, 1998.
  • Green, David. Pauper Capital: London and the Poor Law, 1790-1860. Farnham, Surrey, 2010.
  • Hindle, Steve. On the Parish?: The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England, c.1550-1750. Oxford, 2004.
  • Hitchcock, Tim and Black, John, eds. Chelsea Settlement and Bastardy Examinations, 1733-66. London Record Society, 33, 1999 for 1996.
  • Hitchcock, Tim, King, Peter, and Sharpe, Pamela, eds. Chronicling Poverty: The Voices and Strategies of the English Poor, 1640-1840. Basingstoke, 1997.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Down and Out in Eighteenth-Century London. 2004.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Paupers and Preachers: The SPCK and the Parochial Work-House Movement. In Davison, L., et al., eds, Stilling the Grumbling Hive: The Response to Social and Economic Problems in England, 1689-1750. Stroud, 1992, pp. 145-66.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. The Publicity of Poverty in Early Eighteenth-Century London. In Merritt, Julia F., ed. Imagining Early Modern London: Perceptions and Portrayals of the City from Stow to Strype, 1598-1720. Cambridge, 2001, pp. 166-84.
  • Hitchcock, Tim, ed. Richard Hutton's Complaints Book: The Notebook of the Steward of the Quaker Workhouse at Clerkenwell, 1711-1737. London Record Society, 24, 1987.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. "You bitches …die and be damned": Gender, Authority and the Mob in St Martin's Round-House Disaster of 1742. In Hitchcock, Tim, and Shore, Heather, eds, The Streets of London: From the Great Fire to the Great Stink. 2003, pp. 69-81, 224-7.
  • Honeyman, Katrina. Child Workers in England, 1780-1820: Parish Apprentices and the Making of the Early Industrial Labour Force. Aldershot, 2007.
  • Innes, Joanna. The Distinctiveness of the English Poor Laws, 1750-1850. In Winch, Donald and O'Brien, Patrick, eds, The Political Economy of British Historical Experience, 1688-1914. Oxford 2002, pp. 381-407.
  • Innes, Joanna. Managing the Metropolis: London's Social Problems and their Control, c.1660-1830. In Clark, Peter, and Gillespie, Raymond, eds, Two Capitals: London and Dublin 1500-1840 (Proceedings of the British Academy, 107). Oxford, 2001, pp. 53-79.
  • Innes, Joanna. The "mixed economy of welfare" in Early Modern England: Assessments of the Options from Hale to Malthus (c.1683-1803). In Daunton, Martin, ed., Charity, Self-interest and Welfare in the English Past. 1996, pp. 139-80.
  • Innes, Joanna. Parliament and the Shaping of Eighteenth-Century English Social Policy. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., 40 (1990), pp. 63-92
  • King, Steven. Poverty and Welfare in England, 1700-1850. Manchester, 2000.
  • King, Steven, Nutt, Thomas, Tomkins, Alannah, Levene, Alysa, Symonds, Deborah A., and King, Peter, eds. Narratives of the Poor in Eighteenth-Century Britain. 2006.
  • King, Steven, and Tomkins, Alannah, eds. The Poor in England, 1700-1850: An Economy of Makeshifts. Manchester, 2003.
  • Lees, Lynn Hollen. The Solidarities of Strangers: The English Poor Laws and the People, 1700-1948. Cambridge, 1998.
  • Levene, Alysa. Children, Childhood and the Workhouse: St Marylebone, 1769-1781. London Journal, 33, 1 (2008), pp. 41-59.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Charity and Poverty in England, c.1680-1820. Manchester, 2009.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Pleasing Spectacles and Elegant Dinners: Conviviality, Benevolence, and Charity Anniversaries in Eighteenth-Century London. Journal of British Studies, 41, 1 (2002), pp. 23-57.
  • McClure, R. K. Coram's Children: The London Foundling Hospital in the Eighteenth Century. New Haven, 1981.
  • MacFarlane, Stephen M. Social Policy and the Poor in the Later Seventeenth Century. In Beier, A.L. and Finlay, R.A.P., eds, London, 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis. 1986, pp. 252-77.
  • Murphy, Elaine. Mad Farming in the Metropolis, Part 1: A Significant Service Industry in East London. History of Psychiatry, 12, 3, 47 (2001), pp. 245-82.
  • Murphy, Elaine. The Metropolitan Pauper Farms 1722-1834. London Journal, 27, 1 (2002), pp. 1-18.
  • Neate, Alan Robert. The St Marylebone Workhouse and Institution, 1730-1965. Rev. edn., 2003.
  • Rogers, Nicholas. Policing the Poor in Eighteenth-Century London: The Vagrancy Laws and Their Administration. Histoire Sociale / Social History, 24 (1991), pp. 127-47.
  • Rogers, Nicholas S. Vagrancy, Impressment and the Regulation of Labour in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Slavery & Abolition, 15, 2 (1994), pp. 102-13.
  • Schwarz, Leonard D. London 1700-1840. In Clark, Peter, ed., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, Vol. 2: 1540-1840. Cambridge, 2000, pp. 641-72.
  • Schwarz, Leonard D. London in the Age of Industrialisation: Entrepreneurs, Labour Force and Living Conditions, 1700-1850. Cambridge, 1992.
  • Siena, Kevin P. Venereal Disease, Hospitals and the Urban Poor: London's "Foul Wards", 1600-1800. Rochester, New York, 2004.
  • Slack, Paul. The English Poor Law, 1531-1782 (Studies in Economic and Social History). Basingstoke, 1990.
  • Slack, Paul. From Reformation to Improvement: Public Welfare in Early Modern England. Oxford, 1999.
  • Slack, Paul. Hospitals, Workhouses and the Relief of the Poor in Early Modern London. In Grell, Ole Peter and Cunningham, Andrew, eds, Health Care and Poor Relief in Protestant Europe, 1500-1700. 1997, pp. 234-51.
  • Sokoll, Thomas, ed. Essex Pauper Letters, 1731-1837. Oxford, 2001.
  • Taylor, James Stephen. Jonas Hanway, Founder of the Marine Society: Charity and Policy in Eighteenth-Century Britain. 1985.
  • Tomkins, Alannah. The Experience of Urban Poverty, 1723-82: Parish, Charity and Credit. Manchester, 2006.
  • Webb, Beatrice and Sidney. English Local Government: English Poor Law History: Part 1. The Old Poor Law. 1927, 1963.
  • Williams, S.K. and Ottaway, Susannah. Life Course and Lifecycle: Reconstructing the Experience of Poverty in the Time of the Old Poor Law. Archives, 23 (1998), pp. 19-29.

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Parish Relief

  • Boulton, Jeremy. "It is extreme necessity that makes me do this": Some "Survival Strategies" of Pauper Households in London's West End During the Early Eighteenth Century. International Review of Social History, Supplement, 8 (2000), pp. 47-70.
  • Boulton, Jeremy. The Poor Among the Rich: Paupers and the Parish, in the West End, 1600-1724. In Griffiths, Paul and Jenner, Mark S. R., eds, Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London. Manchester, 2000, pp. 197-225.
  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010, ch.5.
  • Green, David. Pauper Capital: London and the Poor Law, 1790-1860. Farnham, Surrey, 2010.
  • Hindle, Steve. On the Parish?: The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England, c.1550-1750. Oxford, 2004.
  • Hitchcock, Tim; King, Peter; and Sharpe, Pamela, eds. Chronicling Poverty: The Voices and Strategies of the English Poor, 1640-1840. Basingstoke, 1997.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Down and Out in Eighteenth-Century London. 2004, ch.5.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Paupers and Preachers: The SPCK and the Parochial Work-House Movement. In Davison, L., et al., eds, Stilling the Grumbling Hive: The Response to Social and Economic Problems in England, 1689-1750. Stroud, 1992, pp. 145-66.
  • Honeyman, Katrina. Child Workers in England, 1780-1820: Parish Apprentices and the Making of the Early Industrial Labour Force. Aldershot, 2007.
  • Innes, Joanna. The Distinctiveness of the English Poor Laws, 1750-1850. In Winch, Donald and O'Brien, Patrick, eds, The Political Economy of British Historical Experience, 1688-1914. Oxford, 2002, pp. 381-407.
  • Innes, Joanna. The "mixed economy of welfare" in Early Modern England: Assessments of the Options from Hale to Malthus (c.1683-1803). In Daunton, Martin J., ed., Charity, Self-interest and Welfare in the English Past. 1996, pp. 139-80.
  • King, Steven. Poverty and Welfare in England, 1700-1850. Manchester, 2000.
  • Lees, Lynn Hollen. The Solidarities of Strangers: The English Poor Laws and the People, 1700-1948. Cambridge, 1998.
  • Levene, Alysa. Children, Childhood and the Workhouse: St Marylebone, 1769-1781. London Journal, 33:1 (2008), pp. 41-59.
  • Murphy, Elaine. The Metropolitan Pauper Farms 1722-1834. London Journal, 27, 1 (2002), pp. 1-18.
  • Neate, Alan Robert. The St Marylebone Workhouse and Institution, 1730-1965. Rev. edn, 2003.
  • Slack, Paul. The English Poor Law, 1531-1782 (Studies in Economic and Social History). Basingstoke, 1990.
  • Slack, Paul. From Reformation to Improvement: Public Welfare in Early Modern England. Oxford, 1999.
  • Sokoll, Thomas, ed. Essex Pauper Letters, 1731-1837. Oxford, 2001.
  • Taylor, James Stephen. Jonas Hanway, Founder of the Marine Society: Charity and Policy in Eighteenth-Century Britain. 1985, ch.8.
  • Tomkins, Alannah. The Experience of Urban Poverty, 1723-82: Parish, Charity and Credit. Manchester, 2006.
  • Webb, Beatrice and Sidney. English Local Government: English Poor Law History: Part 1. The Old Poor Law. 1927, 1963.
  • Williams, S.K. and Ottaway, Susannah. Life Course and Lifecycle: Reconstructing the Experience of Poverty in the Time of the Old Poor Law. Archives, 23 (1998), pp.19-29.

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The Parish Nurse

  • Andrew, Donna T. Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century. Princeton, 1989.
  • Boulton, Jeremy. Welfare Systems and the Parish Nurse in Early Modern London, 1650-1725. Family & Community History, 10:2 (2007), 127-51.
  • Earle, Peter. A City Full of People: Men and Women of London, 1650-1750. 1994.
  • George, M. Dorothy. London Life in the Eighteenth Century. 1925, 1965.
  • Honeyman, Katrina. Child Workers in England, 1780-1820: Parish Apprentices and the Making of the Early Industrial Labour Force. Aldershot, 2007.
  • Levene, Alysa. Children, Childhood and the Workhouse: St Marylebone, 1769-1781. London Journal, 33, 1 (2008), pp. 41-59.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Pleasing Spectacles and Elegant Dinners: Conviviality, Benevolence, and Charity Anniversaries in Eighteenth-Century London. Journal of British Studies, 41, 1 (2002), pp. 23-57.
  • McClure, R. K. Coram's Children: The London Foundling Hospital in the Eighteenth Century. New Haven, 1981.
  • Murphy, Elaine. The Metropolitan Pauper Farms 1722-1834. London Journal, 27,1 (2002), pp. 1-18.
  • Pinchbeck, Ivy, and Hewitt, Margaret. Children in English Society. Vol.1 From Tudor Times to the Eighteenth Century. 1969.
  • Taylor, James Stephen. Jonas Hanway, Founder of the Marine Society: Charity and Policy in Eighteenth-Century Britain. 1985.
  • Webb, Beatrice and Sidney. English Local Government: English Poor Law History: Part 1. The Old Poor Law. 1927, 1963.

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Workhouses

  • Boulton, Jeremy. Welfare Systems and the Parish Nurse in Early Modern London, 1650-1725. Family & Community History, 10, 2 (2007), pp. 127-51.
  • Chalklin, Christopher William. The Reconstruction of London's Prisons, 1770-1799: An Aspect of the Growth of Georgian London. London Journal, 9 (1983), pp. 21-34.
  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010, ch.5.
  • Hitchcock, Tim; King, Peter; and Sharpe, Pamela, eds. Chronicling Poverty: The Voices and Strategies of the English Poor, 1640-1840. Basingstoke, 1997.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Down and Out in Eighteenth-Century London. 2004, ch.6.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Paupers and Preachers: The SPCK and the Parochial Work-House Movement. In Davison, L., et al., eds, Stilling the Grumbling Hive: The Response to Social and Economic Problems in England, 1689-1750. Stroud, 1992, pp. 145-66.
  • Hitchcock, Tim, ed. Richard Hutton's Complaints Book: The Notebook of the Steward of the Quaker Workhouse at Clerkenwell, 1711-1737. London Record Society, 24, 1987.
  • Honeyman, Katrina. Child Workers in England, 1780-1820: Parish Apprentices and the Making of the Early Industrial Labour Force. Aldershot, 2007.
  • Innes, Joanna. Managing the Metropolis: London's Social Problems and their Control, c.1660-1830. In Clark, Peter and Gillespie, Raymond, eds, Two Capitals: London and Dublin 1500-1840 (Proceedings of the British Academy, 107). Oxford, 2001, pp. 53-79.
  • Innes, Joanna. The "mixed economy of welfare" in Early Modern England: Assessments of the Options from Hale to Malthus (c.1683-1803). In Daunton, Martin J., ed., Charity, Self-interest and Welfare in the English Past. 1996, pp. 139-80.
  • Levene, Alysa. Children, Childhood and the Workhouse: St Marylebone, 1769-1781. London Journal, 33, 1 (2008), pp. 41-59.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Charity and Poverty in England, c.1680-1820. Manchester, 2009.
  • MacFarlane, Stephen M. Social Policy and the Poor in the Later Seventeenth Century. In Beier, A.L. and Finlay, R.A.P., eds, London, 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis. 1986, pp. 252-77.
  • Morrison, Kathryn. The Workhouse: A Study of Poor-Law Building in England. Swindon, 1999.
  • Murphy, Elaine. Mad Farming in the Metropolis, Part 1: A Significant Service Industry in East London. History of Psychiatry, 12, 3, 47 (2001), pp. 245-82.
  • Murphy, Elaine. The Metropolitan Pauper Farms 1722-1834. London Journal, 27, 1 (2002), pp. 1-18.
  • Neate, Alan Robert. The St Marylebone Workhouse and Institution, 1730-1965. Rev. edn, 2003.
  • Slack, Paul. The English Poor Law, 1531-1782 (Studies in Economic and Social History). Basingstoke, 1990.
  • Slack, Paul. From Reformation to Improvement: Public Welfare in Early Modern England. Oxford, 1999.
  • Slack, Paul. Hospitals, Workhouses and the Relief of the Poor in Early Modern London. In Grell, Ole Peter and Cunningham, Andrew, eds, Health Care and Poor Relief in Protestant Europe, 1500-1700. 1997, pp. 234-51.
  • Tomkins, Alannah. The Experience of Urban Poverty, 1723-82: Parish, Charity and Credit. Manchester, 2006.
  • Webb, Beatrice and Sidney. English Local Government: English Poor Law History: Part 1. The Old Poor Law. 1927, 1963.
  • Zirker, Malvin. Fielding's Social Pamphlets, Berkeley, California, 1966.

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Settlement

  • Black, John. Illegitimacy and the Urban Poor, 1740-1830. PhD, University of London, 1999.
  • Green, David. Pauper Capital: London and the Poor Law 1790-1870. Farnham, Surrey, 2010.
  • Hitchcock, Tim, and Black, John, eds. Chelsea Settlement and Bastardy Examinations, 1733-66. London Record Society, 33, 1999 for 1996.
  • Landau, Norma. The Eighteenth-Century Context of the Laws of Settlement. Continuity and Change, 6, 3 (1991), pp. 417-39.
  • Landau, Norma. The Regulation of Immigration, Economic Structures and Definitions of the Poor in Eighteenth-Century England. Historical Journal, 33 (1990), pp. 541-71.
  • Landau, Norma. Who was Subjected to the Laws of Settlement?: Procedure Under the Settlement Laws in Eighteenth-Century England. Agricultural History Review, 43 (1995), pp. 139-59.
  • Lees, Lynn Hollen. The Solidarities of Strangers: The English Poor Laws and the People, 1700-1948. Cambridge, 1998.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Charity and Poverty in England, c.1680-1820. Manchester, 2009.
  • Marshall, Dorothy. The English Poor in the Eighteenth Century. 1926.
  • Snell, Keith D. M. Annals of the Labouring Poor: Social Change and Agrarian England, 1660-1900. Cambridge, 1985.
  • Snell, Keith D. M. Pauper Settlement and the Right to Poor Relief in England and Wales. Continuity and Change, 6, 3 (1991), pp. 375-415.
  • Snell, Keith D. M. Settlement, Poor Law and the Rural Historian: New Approaches and Opportunities. Rural History, 3, 2 (1992), pp. 145-72.
  • Styles, Philip. The Evolution of the Law of Settlement. University of Birmingham Historical Journal, 9 (1963), pp. 33-63.
  • Taylor, J. S. The Impact of Pauper Settlement 1691-1834. Past and Present, 73 (1976), pp. 42-74.
  • Thomas, E. G. The Poor Law Migrant to Oxford 1700-1795. Oxoniensia, 45 (1980), pp. 300-5.

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Vagrancy

  • Beattie, John. Policing and Punishment in London, 1660-1750: Urban Crime and the Limits of Terror. Oxford, 2001.
  • Eccles, Audrey. The Adams' Father and Son, Vagrant Contractors to Middlesex 1754-94. Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, 57 (2006), pp. 83-91.
  • Green, David. Pauper Capital: London and the Poor Law, 1790-1860. Farnham, Surrey, 2010.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Down and Out in Eighteenth-Century London. 2004.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. "You bitches …die and be damned": Gender, Authority and the Mob in St Martin's Round-House Disaster of 1742. In Hitchcock, Tim, and Shore, Heather, eds, The Streets of London: From the Great Fire to the Great Stink. 2003, pp. 69-81, 224-7.
  • Innes, Joanna. Inferior Politics: Social Problems and Social Policies in Eighteenth-Century England. Oxford, 2009.
  • Innes, Joanna. Managing the Metropolis: London's Social Problems and their Control, c.1660-1830. In Clark, Peter and Gillespie, Raymond, eds, Two Capitals: London and Dublin 1500-1840 (Proceedings of the British Academy, 107). Oxford, 2001, pp. 53-79.
  • Rogers, Nicholas. Policing the Poor in Eighteenth-Century London: The Vagrancy Laws and Their Administration. Histoire Sociale / Social History, 24 (1991), pp. 127-47.
  • Rogers, Nicholas S. Vagrancy, Impressment and the Regulation of Labour in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Slavery & Abolition, 15, 2 (1994), pp. 102-13.
  • Webb, Beatrice and Sidney. English Local Government: English Poor Law History: Part 1. The Old Poor Law. 1927, 1963.

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Associational Charities

  • Andrew, Donna T. Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century. Princeton, 1989.
  • Cody, Lisa. Birthing the Nation: Sex, Science, and the Conception of Britons. Oxford, 2005.
  • Innes, Joanna. The "mixed economy of welfare" in Early Modern England: Assessments of the Options from Hale to Malthus (c.1683-1803). In Daunton, Martin J., ed., Charity, Self-interest and Welfare in the English Past. 1996, pp. 139-80.
  • Levene, Alysa. Childcare, Health and Mortality at the London Foundling Hospital, 1741-1800: ‘Left to the mercy of the world’. Manchester, 2007.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Charity and Poverty in England, c.1680-1820. Manchester, 2009.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Pleasing Spectacles and Elegant Dinners: Conviviality, Benevolence, and Charity Anniversaries in Eighteenth-Century London. Journal of British Studies, 41, 1 (2002), pp. 23-57.
  • McClure, R. K. Coram's Children: The London Foundling Hospital in the Eighteenth Century. New Haven, 1981.
  • Payne, Dianne. Rhetoric, Reality and the Marine Society. London Journal, 30, 2 (2005), pp. 66-84.
  • Siena, Kevin P. Venereal Disease, Hospitals and the Urban Poor: London's "Foul Wards," 1600-1800. Rochester, New York, 2004.
  • Slack, Paul. From Reformation to Improvement: Public Welfare in Early Modern England. Oxford, 1999.
  • Taylor, James Stephen. Jonas Hanway, Founder of the Marine Society: Charity and Policy in Eighteenth-Century Britain. 1985.

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Parliamentary Reform

  • Andrew, Donna T. Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century. Princeton, 1989.
  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010.
  • Cunningham, Hugh and Innes, Joanna, eds. Charity, Philanthropy and Reform: From the 1690s to 1850. Basingstoke, 1998.
  • George, M. Dorothy. London Life in the Eighteenth Century. 1925, 1965.
  • Hitchcock, Tim, King, Peter and Sharpe, Pamela, eds. Chronicling Poverty: The Voices and Strategies of the English Poor, 1640-1840. Basingstoke, 1997.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Down and Out in Eighteenth-Century London. 2004.
  • Honeyman, Katrina. Child Workers in England, 1780-1820: Parish Apprentices and the Making of the Early Industrial Labour Force. Aldershot, 2007.
  • Innes, Joanna. The Distinctiveness of the English Poor Laws, 1750-1850. In Winch, Donald Norman and O'Brien, Patrick Karl eds, The Political Economy of British Historical Experience, 1688-1914. Oxford, 2002, pp. 381-407.
  • Innes, Joanna. Managing the Metropolis: London's Social Problems and their Control, c.1660-1830. In Clark, Peter and Gillespie, Raymond, eds, Two Capitals: London and Dublin 1500-1840 (Proceedings of the British Academy, 107). Oxford, 2001, pp. 53-79.
  • Innes, Joanna. The "mixed economy of welfare" in Early Modern England: Assessments of the Options from Hale to Malthus (c.1683-1803). In Daunton, Martin J., ed., Charity, Self-interest and Welfare in the English Past. 1996, pp. 139-80.
  • Innes, Joanna. Origins of the Factory Acts: The Health and Morals of Apprentices Act, 1802. In Landau, Norma, ed., Law, Crime and English Society, 1660-1830. Cambridge, 2002, pp. 230-255.
  • Innes, Joanna. Parliament and the Shaping of Eighteenth-Century English Social Policy. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., 40 (1990), pp. 63-92
  • King, Steven and Tomkins, Alannah, eds. The Poor in England, 1700-1850: An Economy of Makeshifts. Manchester, 2003.
  • Lees, Lynn Hollen. The Solidarities of Strangers: The English Poor Laws and the People, 1700-1948. Cambridge, 1998.
  • Levene, Alysa. Children, Childhood and the Workhouse: St Marylebone, 1769-1781. London Journal, 33, 1 (2008), pp. 41-59.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Charity and Poverty in England, c.1680-1820. Manchester, 2009.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Pleasing Spectacles and Elegant Dinners: Conviviality, Benevolence, and Charity Anniversaries in Eighteenth-Century London. Journal of British Studies, 41, 1 (2002), pp. 23-57.
  • McClure, R. K. Coram's Children: The London Foundling Hospital in the Eighteenth Century'''. New Haven, 1981.
  • Marshall, Dorothy. The English Poor in the Eighteenth Century. 1926.
  • Morrison, Kathryn. The Workhouse: A Study of Poor-Law Building in England. Swindon, 1999.
  • Murphy, Elaine. The Metropolitan Pauper Farms 1722-1834. London Journal, 27, 1 (2002), pp. 1-18.
  • Slack, Paul. The English Poor Law, 1531-1782 (Studies in Economic and Social History). Basingstoke, 1990.
  • Taylor, James Stephen. Jonas Hanway, Founder of the Marine Society: Charity and Policy in Eighteenth-Century Britain. 1985.
  • Webb, Beatrice and Sidney. English Local Government: English Poor Law History: Part 1. The Old Poor Law. 1927, 1963.

Back to Top

The Parish Poor

  • Boulton, Jeremy. "It is extreme necessity that makes me do this": Some "Survival Strategies" of Pauper Households in London's West End During the Early Eighteenth Century. International Review of Social History, Supplement, 8 (2000), pp. 47-70.
  • Boulton, Jeremy. The Poor Among the Rich: Paupers and the Parish, in the West End, 1600-1724. In Griffiths, Paul and Jenner, Mark S. R., eds, Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London. Manchester, 2000, pp. 197-225.
  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010, ch.4.
  • Green, David. Pauper Capital: London and the Poor Law, 1790-1860. Farnham, Surrey, 2010.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Down and Out in Eighteenth-Century London. 2004.
  • King, Steven and Tomkins, Alannah, eds. The Poor in England, 1700-1850: An Economy of Makeshifts. Manchester, 2003.
  • Levene, Alysa. Children, Childhood and the Workhouse: St Marylebone, 1769-1781. London Journal, 33, 1 (2008), pp. 41-59.
  • Slack, Paul. The English Poor Law, 1531-1782 (Studies in Economic and Social History). Basingstoke, 1990.
  • Tomkins, Alannah. The Experience of Urban Poverty, 1723-82: Parish, Charity and Credit. Manchester, 2006.

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Online Resources

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Guilds and Hospitals

Guilds

  • Archer, Ian. The Livery Companies and Charity in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. In Gadd, Ian Anders and Wallis, Patrick, eds, Guilds, Society & Economy in London 1450-1800. 2002, pp. 15-28.
  • Ben-Amos, Ilana. Adolescence and Youth in Early-Modern England. New Haven, 1994.
  • Brooks, C. W. Apprenticeship, Social Mobility and the Middling Sort. In J. Barry and C. W. Brooks, eds, The Middling Sort of People. Basingstoke, 1994, pp. 52-83.
  • Kahl, William F. Apprenticeship and the Freedom of the London Livery Companies, 1690-1750. Guildhall Miscellany, 7 (1956).
  • Kellet, J.R. The Breakdown of Gild and Corporation Control over the Handicraft and Retail Trades in London. Economic History Review, 2nd series, 10 (1957-58), pp. 381-94.
  • Wallis, Patrick. Controlling Commodities: Search and Reconciliation in the Early Modern Livery Companies. In Gadd, Ian Anders and Wallis, Patrick, eds, Guilds, Society & Economy in London 1450-1800. 2002, pp. 85-100.

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Carpenters' Company

  • Alford, Bernard W. E. and Barker, Theodore Cardwell. A History of the Carpenters' Company. 1968.
  • Campbell, James W. P. The Carpentry Trade in Seventeenth-Century England. The Georgian Group Journal, 12 (2002), pp. 215-37.
  • Dobson, C. R. Masters and Journeymen: A Prehistory of Industrial Relations, 1717-1800. 1980.
  • George, M.D. London Life in the Eighteenth Century. 1925, 1965.
  • Jupp, Edward Basil. An Historical Account of the Worshipful Company of Carpenters. 2nd edn, with suppl. by W.W. Pocock, 1887.
  • Louw, Hentie. Demarcation Disputes Between the English Carpenters and Joiners from the 16th to the 18th Century. Construction History, 5 (1989), pp. 3-20.
  • McKellar, Elizabeth. The Birth of Modern London: The Development and Design of the City 1660-1720. 1999.
  • Marsh, Bower, ed. Records of the Worshipful Company of Carpenters: Vol. 1: Apprentices' Entry Books, 1654-94. Oxford, 1913.
  • Reddaway, T. F. The Rebuilding of London after the Great Fire. 1940.
  • Ridley, Jasper. A History of the Carpenters' Company. 1995.
  • Schwarz, Leonard D. London in the Age of Industrialization: Entrepreneurs, Labour Force and Living Conditions, 1700-1850. Cambridge, 1992.

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Hospitals

  • Andrew, Donna T. Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century. Princeton, 1989.
  • Porter, Roy. Cleaning up the Great Wen: Public Health in Eighteenth-Century London. Medical History, supplement number 11 (1991), pp. 61-75.
  • Siena, Kevin. Venereal Disease, Hospitals and the Urban Poor: London's "Foul Wards", 1600-1800. Rochester, New York, 2004.
  • Woodward, John. To Do the Sick No Harm: A Study of the British Voluntary Hospital System to 1875. 1974.

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St Thomas's Hospital

  • Carré, Jacques. Hospital Nurses in Eighteenth-Century Britain: Service Without Responsibility. In Baudino, Isabelle, Carré, Jacques and Révauger, Cécile, eds, The Invisible Woman: Aspects of Women's Work in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Aldershot, 2005, pp. 89-100.
  • Golding, Benjamin. An Historical Account of St Thomas's Hospital, Southwark. 1819.
  • Ford, John M. T. A Medical Student at St Thomas's Hospital, 1801-2: The Weekes Family Letters. 1987.
  • Lawrence, Susan C. Charitable Knowledge: Hospital Pupils and Practitioners in Eighteenth-Century London. Cambridge, 1996.
  • McInnes, E. M. St Thomas's Hospital. 1963.
  • Parsons, F. G. The History of St. Thomas's Hospital. 1932-1936.
  • Rose, Craig. 'Politics and the London Royal Hospitals 1683-92'. In Granshaw, Lindsay and Porter, Roy, eds, The Hospital in History. 1989.
  • Siena, Kevin Patrick. Venereal Disease, Hospitals and the Urban Poor: London's "Foul Wards", 1600-1800. Rochester, New York, 2004.
  • Woodward, John. To Do the Sick No Harm: A Study of the British Voluntary Hospital System to 1875. 1974.

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Research Guides

How to Interpret an Eighteenth-Century Manuscript

  • Barry, Jonathan. Communicating With Authority: The Uses of Script, Print and Speech in Bristol, 1670-1714. In Crick, Julia C. and Walsham, Alexandra, eds, The Uses of Script and Print, 1300-1700. Cambridge, 2004.
  • Beal, Peter. In Praise of Scribes: Manuscripts and their Makers in Seventeenth-Century England. Oxford, 1998.
  • Cressy, David. Literacy and the Social Order: Reading and Writing in Tudor and Stuart England. Cambridge, 1980.
  • Cressy, David. Literacy in Context: Meaning and Measurement in Early Modern England. In Cressy, David, ed., Society and Culture in Early Modern England. (Collected studies series, 768). Aldershot, 2003.
  • Earle, Peter. A City Full of People: Men and Women of London, 1650-1750. 1994.
  • Ford, Wynn. The Problem of Literacy in Early Modern England. History, 78 (1993), pp. 22-37.
  • Ong, Walter J. Writing is a Technology that Restructures Thought. In Baumann, Gerd, ed., The Written Word: Literacy in Transition. Oxford, 1986, pp. 23-50.
  • Thomas, Keith. The Meaning of Literacy in Early Modern England. In Baumann, Gerd, ed., The Written Word: Literacy in Transition. Oxford, 1986, pp. 97-132.
  • Whyman, Susan. The Pen and the People: English Letter Writers, 1660-1800. Oxford, 2009.
  • Wood, Andy. Custom and the Social Organization of Writing in Early Modern England. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., 9 (1999), pp. 257-270.

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Researching Apprentices

  • Ben-Amos, Ilana. Adolescence and Youth in Early-Modern England. New Haven, 1994.
  • Brooks, C. W. Apprenticeship, Social Mobility and the Middling Sort. In J. Barry and C. W. Brooks, eds, The Middling Sort of People. Basingstoke, 1994, pp. 52-83.
  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010.
  • Gray, Drew D. Crime, Prosecution and Social Relations: The Summary Courts of the City of London in the Eighteenth Century. Basingstoke, 2009, pp. 160-66.
  • Linebaugh, Peter. The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century. 1991.

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Researching Bastardy

  • Black, John. Illegitimacy and the Urban Poor in Londn, 1740-1830. University of London PhD, 1999.
  • Black, John. Illegitimacy, Sexual Relations and Location in Metropolitan London, 1735-85. In Hitchcock, Tim and Shore, Heather, eds, The Streets of London: From the Great Fire to the Great Stink. 2003, pp. 101-118.
  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010.
  • Dabhoiwala, Faramerz. The Pattern of Sexual Morality in Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century London. In Griffiths, P. and Jenner, M.S.R., eds, Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London. Manchester, 2000, pp. 86-106.
  • Evans, Tanya. Unfortunate Objects: Lone Mothers in Eighteenth-Century London. Basingstoke, 2005.
  • Hitchcock, Tim and Black, John, eds. Chelsea Settlement and Bastardy Examinations, 1733-66. London Record Society, 33 (1999).
  • Hitchcock, Tim. 'Unlawfully begotten on her body': Illegitimacy and the Parish Poor in St Luke's Chelsea. In Hitchcock, Tim, King, Peter and Sharpe, Pamela, eds, Chronicling Poverty: The Voices and Strategies of the English Poor, 1640-1840. Basingstoke, 1997, pp. 70-86.
  • Levene, Alysa, Nutt, Thomas, and Williams, Samantha, eds. Illegitimacy in Britain, 1700-1920. Basingstoke, 2005.
  • Jackson, Mark. New-Born Child Murder: Women, Illegitimacy and the Courts in Eighteenth-Century England. Manchester, 1996.
  • Laslett, Peter, Oosterveen, Karla, and Smith, Richard M., eds. Bastardy and Its Comparative History: Studies in the History of Illegitimacy and Marital Nonconformism in Britain, France, Germany, Sweden, North America, Jamaica and Japan. 1980.
  • Rogers, Nicholas. Carnal Knowledge: Illegitimacy in Eighteenth-Century Westminster. Journal of Social History, 23, 2 (1989), pp. 355-375.

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Researching Crime

  • Beattie, J. M. Crime and the Courts in England 1660-1800. Princeton, 1986.
  • Clayton, Mary. The Life and Times of Charlotte Walker, Prostitute and Pickpocket. London Journal, 33 (2008), pp. 3-19.
  • Gray, Drew D. Crime, Prosecution and Social Relations: The Summary Courts of the City of London in the Eighteenth Century. Basingstoke, 2009.
  • Henderson, Tony. Disorderly Women in Eighteenth-Century England. Harlow, Essex, 1999.
  • King, Peter. Crime, Justice and Discretion in England, 1740-1820. Oxford, 2000.
  • Linebaugh, Peter. The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century. 1991.
  • MacKay, Lynn. Why they Stole: Women in the Old Bailey, 1779-1789. Journal of Social History, 32 (1999), pp. 623-40.
  • Shoemaker, Robert B. Using Quarter Sessions Records as Evidence for the Study of Crime and Criminal Justice. Archives, 20 (1993), pp. 145-57.
  • Shoemaker, Robert. The London Mob: Violence and Disorder in Eighteenth-Century England. 2004.

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Researching Illness

  • Landers, John. Death in the Metropolis: Studies in the Demographic History of London, 1670-1830. Cambridge, 1993.
  • Levene, Alysa. Childcare, Health and Mortality at the London Foundling Hospital, 1741-1800: ‘Left to the mercy of the world’. Manchester, 2007.
  • Porter, Roy. Flesh in the Age of Reason: the Modern Foundations of Body and Soul. New York, 2004.
  • Siena, Kevin. Venereal Diseas, Hospitals and the Urban Poor: London's "Foul Wards", 1600-1800. Rochester, New York, 2004.

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Researching Poverty

  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010.
  • Andrew, Donna T. Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century. Princeton, 1989.
  • Green, David. Pauper Capital: London and the Poor Law, 1790-1860. Farnham, Surrey, 2010.
  • Hindle, Steve. On the Parish?: The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England, c.1550-1750. Oxford, 2004.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Down and Out in Eighteenth-Century London. 2004.
  • Innes, Joanna. Managing the Metropolis: London's Social Problems and their Control, c.1660-1830. In Clark, Peter and Gillespie, Raymond, eds, Two Capitals: London and Dublin 1500-1840 (Proceedings of the British Academy, 107). Oxford, 2001, pp.53-79.
  • King, Steven. Poverty and Welfare in England, 1700-1850. Manchester, 2000.
  • Lees, Lynn Hollen. The Solidarities of Strangers: The English Poor Laws and the People, 1700-1948. Cambridge, 1998.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Charity and Poverty in England, c.1680-1820. Manchester, 2009.
  • Slack, Paul. From Reformation to Improvement: Public Welfare in Early Modern England. Oxford, 1999.

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Researching Work

  • Dobson, C. R. Masters and Journeymen: A Prehistory of Industrial Relations, 1717-1800. 1980.
  • D'Sena, Peter. Perquisites and Casual Labour on the London Wharfside in the Eighteenth Century. London Journal 14 (1989), pp. 130-147.
  • Earle, Peter. A City Full of People: Men and Women of London, 1650-1750. 1994.
  • Linebaugh, Peter. The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century. 1992.
  • Rule, John. The Experience of Labour in Eighteenth-Century Industry. 1981.

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Online Sources

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Documents

Parish Records (AC), (AO), (AP), (BC), (BE), (BN), (EP), (IW), (LW), (MO), (MV), (OO), (PA), (PM), (PP), (PR), (RC), (RD), (RI), (RP), (RR), (RV)

  • Andrews, Jonathan and Waddington, Keir. The History of Bethlem. 1997.
  • Archer, Ian. Politics and Gvernment 1540-1700. In Clark, Peter, ed., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, Vol. 2 : 1540-1840. Cambridge, 2000, pp. 235-62.
  • Black, John. Illegitimacy, Sexual Relations and Location in Metropolitan London, 1735-85. In Hitchcock, Tim and Shore, Heather, eds, The Streets of London From the Great Fire to the Great Stink. 2003, pp. 101-118.
  • Black, John. Who Were the Putative Fathers of Illegitimate Children in London, 1740-1810?. In Levene, Alysa, Williams, Samantha and Nutt, Thomas Nutt, eds, Illegitimacy in Britain, 1700-1920. Basingstoke, 2005, pp. 52-83.
  • Boulton, Jeremy. Welfare Systems and the Parish Nurse in Early Modern London, 1650-1725, Family & Community History, 10, 2 (2007), pp. 127-51.
  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010.
  • Dabhoiwala, Faramerz. Summary Justice in Early Modern London. English Historical Review, 121 (2006), pp. 796-822.
  • Eastwood, David. Local Government and Local Society. In Dickinson, Harry, ed., A Companion to Eighteenth-Century Britain. Oxford, 2002.
  • Edwards, J.R. A History of Financial Accounting. 1989.
  • George, M. Dorothy. London Life in the Eighteenth Century. 1925, 1965.
  • Glaisyer, Natasha. The Culture of Commerce in England, 1660-1720. Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2006, ch.3.
  • Hindle, Steve. On the Parish?: The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England, c.1550-1750. Oxford, 2004.
  • Hindle, Steve. "Waste" Children? Pauper Apprenticeship Under the Elizabethan Poor Laws, c. 1598-1697. In Lane, Penelope, Raven, Neil and Snell, Keith, eds, Women, Work and Wages in England, 1600-1850. Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2004.
  • Hinkle, William G. A History of Bridewell Prison, 1553-1700. Lampeter, 2006.
  • Hitchcock, Tim and Black, John, eds. Chelsea Settlement and Bastardy Examinations, 1733-66. London Record Society, 33, 1999 for 1996, Introduction.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Down and Out in Eighteenth-Century London. 2004, ch.5 & 6.
  • Honeyman, Katrina. Child Workers in England, 1780-1820. Aldershot, 2007
  • Innes, Joanna. Prisons for the Poor: English Bridewells, 1555-1800. In Snyder, F. and Hay, D., eds, Labour, Law and Crime: An Historical Perspective. 1987.
  • Innes, Joanna. Origins of the Factory Acts: The Health and Morals of Apprentices Act, 1802. In Landau, N., ed., Law, Crime and English Society, 1660-1830. Cambridge, 2002.
  • Innes, Joanna. Inferior Politics: Social Problems and Social Policies in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Oxford, 2009.
  • Jones, Gareth. History of the Law of Charity, 1532-1827. Cambridge, 1969.
  • Jones, Peter. Clothing the Poor in Early-Nineteenth-Century England. Textile History, 37, 1 (2006), pp. 17-37.
  • Jones, R. H. Accounting in English Local Government from the Middle Ages to c.1835. In Parker, Robert H. and Yamey, B. S., eds, Accounting History: Some British Contributions. Oxford, 1994, pp. 377-403.
  • King, Steven. Pauper Letters as a Source. Family & Community History, 10, 2 (2007), pp. 167-70.
  • Lane, Joan. Apprenticeship in England, 1600-1914. 1996.
  • Levene, Alysa, et al, eds. Narratives of the Poor in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Vol. 1: Voices of the Poor: Poor Law Depositions and Letters. 2006.
  • Levene, Alysa. "Honesty, Sobriety and Diligence": Master-Apprentice Relations in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-century England. Social History, 33, 2 (2008), pp. 183-200.
  • Murphy, Elaine. The Metropolitan Pauper Farms 1722-1834. London Journal, 27, 1 (2002), pp. 1-18.
  • Neate, Alan Robert. The St Marylebone Workhouse and Institution, 1730-1965. Rev. edn, 2003.
  • O'Donoghue, E. G. Bridewell Hospital, Palace, Prison, School. 2 vols, 1923-9.
  • Reynolds, Elaine A. Before the Bobbies: The Night Watch and Police Reform in Metropolitan London, 1720-1830. Basingstoke, 1998.
  • Reynolds, Elaine A. Sir John Fielding, Sir Charles Whitworth, and the Westminster Night Watch Act, 1770-1775. Criminal Justice History, 16 (2002), pp. 1–22.
  • S.A.King and C.Payne, eds. The Dress of the Poor, 1700-1900. A special edition of Textile History, 2002.
  • Sharpe, Pamela. "The bowels of compation": A Labouring Family and the Law, c.1790-1834. In Hitchcock, Tim; King, Peter and Sharpe, Pamela, eds, Chronicling Poverty: The Voices and Strategies of the English Poor, 1640-1840. Basingstoke, 1997.
  • Snell, Keith D. M. Parish and Belonging: Community, Identity, and Welfare in England and Wales, 1700-1950. Cambridge, 2006.
  • Sokoll, Thomas, ed. Essex Pauper Letters, 1731-1837. Records of Social and Economic History, ns, 30; Oxford 2001.
  • Sokoll, Thomas. Writing for Relief: Rhetoric in English Pauper Letters, 1800-1834. In Gestrich, Andreas, King, Steven and Lutz, Raphael, eds, Being Poor in Modern Europe: Historical Perspectives 1800-1940. Oxford, 2006.
  • Steedman, Carolyn. Lord Mansfield's Women. Past and Present, 176 (2002), pp.105-143.
  • Styles, John. The Dress of the People: Everyday Fashion in 18th-Century England. New Haven, 2008.
  • Styles, Philip. The Evolution of the Law of Settlement. University of Birmingham Historical Journal, 9 (1963), pp. 33-63.
  • Taylor, J. S. The Impact of Pauper Settlement 1691-1834. Past and Present, 73 (1976), pp. 42-74.
  • Taylor, James S. Jonas Hanway, Founder of the Marine Society: Charity and Policy in Eighteenth-Century Britain. 1985, ch. 8.
  • Tomkins, Alannah. The Experience of Urban Poverty, 1723-82: Parish, Charity and Credit. Manchester, 2006.
  • Webb, Sidney and Beatrice. English Local Government from the Revolution to the Municipal Corporations Act. Vol.1: The Parish and the County. 1906, 1963.
  • Yamey, B.S., Edey, H.C. and Thomason, H.W. Accounting in England and Scotland: 1543-1800: Double Entry in Exposition and Practice. 1963.

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Hospitals, Guilds and Apprenticeship (AI), (LB), (MG), (PM), (BR), (RH)

  • Andrews, Jonathan, and Waddington, Keir. The History of Bethlem. 1997.
  • Ben-Amos, Ilana. Adolescence and Youth in Early Modern England. New Haven, 1994.
  • Cowie, L. W. Bridewell. History Today, 23, 5 (1973), pp. 350-358.
  • Dabhoiwala, Faramerz. Summary Justice in Early Modern London. English Historical Review, 121 (2006), pp. 796-822.
  • Ford, John M. T. A Medical Student at St Thomas's Hospital, 1801-2: The Weekes Family Letters. 1987.
  • George, M. Dorothy. London Life in the Eighteenth Century. 1925, 1965, ch.5.
  • Griffiths, Paul. Lost Londons: Change, Crime and Control in the Capital City 1550-1660. Cambridge, 2008.
  • Hindle, Steve. On the Parish?: The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England, c.1550-1750. Oxford, 2004.
  • Hindle, Steve. "Waste" Children? Pauper Apprenticeship Under the Elizabethan Poor Laws, c. 1598-1697. In Lane, Penelope, Raven, Neil and Snell, Keith, eds, Women, Work and Wages in England, 1600-1850. Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2004.
  • Hinkle, William G. A History of Bridewell Prison, 1553-1700. Lampeter, 2006.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. Down and Out in Eighteenth-Century London. 2004, ch.6.
  • Honeyman, Katrina. Child Workers in England, 1780-1820: Parish Apprentices and the Making of the Early Industrial Labour Force. Aldershot, 2007.
  • Innes, J. Prisons for the Poor: English Bridewells, 1555-1800. In Snyder, F. and Hay, D. , eds, Labour, Law and Crime: An Historical Perspective. 1987.
  • Lane, Joan. Apprenticeship in England, 1600-1914. 1996.
  • Lawrence, Susan C. Charitable Knowledge: Hospital Pupils and Practitioners in Eighteenth-Century London. Cambridge, 1996.
  • Levene, Alysa. "Honesty, Sobriety and Diligence": Master-Apprentice Relations in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-century England. Social History, 33, 2 (2008), pp. 183-200.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Charity and Poverty in England, c.1680-1820. Manchester, 2009.
  • McInnes, Eilidh Mary. St Thomas's Hospital, London, and Its Archives. Journal of the Society of Archivists, 1 (1959), pp. 277-82.
  • O'Donoghue, E. G. Bridewell Hospital, Palace, Prison, School. 2 vols, 1923-9.
  • Siena, Kevin Patrick. Venereal Disease, Hospitals and the Urban Poor: London's "Foul wards" 1600-1800. Rochester, New York, 2004.
  • Snell, Keith D. M. Parish and Belonging: Community, Identity, and Welfare in England and Wales, 1700-1950. Cambridge, 2006.
  • Taylor, James S. Jonas Hanway, Founder of the Marine Society: Charity and Policy in Eighteenth-Century Britain. 1985, ch. 8.
  • Thomas, Keith. The Meaning of Literacy in Early Modern England. In Bauman, G., ed., The Written Word: Literacy in Transition. Oxford, 1986, pp. 97-131.
  • Tomkins, Alannah. The Experience of Urban Poverty, 1723-82: Parish, Charity and Credit. Manchester, 2006.
  • Whyman, Susan. The Pen and the People: English Letter Writers, 1660-1800. Oxford, 2009.

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County and Civil Records (GO)

  • Dowdell, E. G. A Hundred Years of Quarter Sessions. Cambridge, 1932.
  • Goodacre, K. and Mercer, E. Doris. Guide to the Middlesex Sessions Records, 1549-1889. 1965.
  • Shoemaker, R. B. Prosecution and Punishment: Petty Crime and the Law in London and Rural Middlesex. Cambridge, 1991.

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Criminal Records, (OBP), (OA), (PS), (CR)

  • Gaskill, M. Reporting Murder: Fiction in the Archives of Early Modern England. Social History, 23 (1998), pp. 1-30.
  • Goodacre, K. and Mercer, E. Doris. Guide to the Middlesex Sessions Records, 1549-1889. 1965.
  • Hawkings, David T. Criminal Ancestors: A Guide to Historical Criminal Records in England and Wales. Stroud, 1992.
  • Hindle, Steve. On the Parish?: The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England, c.1550-1750. Oxford, 2004.
  • Shoemaker, R. B. Using Quarter Sessions Records as Evidence for the Study of Crime and Criminal Justice. Archives 20 (October 1993), pp. 145-157.
  • King, Peter, and Noel, Joan. "The Problem of Juvenile Delinquency": The Growth of Juvenile Prosecutions in London in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries. Criminal Justice History, 14 (1993), pp. 17-41.
  • King, Peter. The Rise of Juvenile Delinquency in England 1780-1840: Changing Patterns of Perception and Prosecution. Past and Present, 160 (1998), pp. 116-166.
  • Faller, L. B. Turned to Account: The Forms and Functions of Criminal Biography in Late Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century England. Cambridge, 1987.
  • Linebaugh, P. The Ordinary of Newgate and his Account. In Cockburn, J. S., ed., Crime in England 1550-1800. 1977, pp. 246-70.
  • McKenzie, Andrea. From True Confessions to True Reporting? The Decline and Fall of the Ordinary’s Account. London Journal, 30, 1 (2005), pp. 55-70.
  • McKenzie, Andrea. Tyburn's Martyrs: Execution in England 1675-1775. 2007.

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Coroners Inquests (IC)

  • Fisher, Pam. The Politics of Sudden Death: The Office and Role of the Coroner in England and Wales, 1726-1888 Leicester University PhD, 2007.
  • Forbes, Thomas. Coroner's Quest. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 68, pt. 1 (1978).
  • Impey, John. The Office and Duty of Coroners. 1800.
  • Sharpe, J. A. Domestic Homicide in Early Modern England. Historical Journal, 24, 1 (1981), pp. 29-48.

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Online Resources

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Additional Datasets

Parish Records

Records from Taxation

Other Sources

St Botolph Aldgate Parish Registers

  • Boulton, Jeremy. The Marriage Duty Act and Parochial Registration. In Schurer, Kevin and Arkell, Tom, eds, Surveying the People: the Interpretation and use of Document Sources for the Study of Population in the Later Seventeenth Century. Oxford, 1992, pp. 222-52.
  • Tate, W. E. The Parish Chest. Third edn, Cambridge, 1969, pp. 43-83.

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St Martin in the Fields Pauper Examinations

  • Boulton, Jeremy. 'It Is Extreme Necessity That Makes Me Do This'. Some "Survival Strategies" of Pauper Households in London's West End During the Early Eighteenth Century. International Review of Social History, Supplement 8 (2001), pp. 47-69.
  • Boulton, Jeremy. The Poor Among the Rich: Paupers and the Parish, in the West End, 1600-1724. In Griffiths, Paul and Jenner, Mark S. R., eds, Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London. Manchester, 2000, pp. 195-223.
  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010.
  • Schwarz, L.D. London, 1700-1840. In Clark, Peter, ed., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, Vol. 2. Cambridge, 2000, pp. 641-72.
  • Schwarz, L.D. London in the Age of Industrialisation: Entrepreneurs, Labour Force and Living Conditions, 1700–1850. Cambridge, 2004.

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St Martin in the Fields Workhouse Register

  • Boulton, Jeremy. 'It Is Extreme Necessity That Makes Me Do This'. Some "Survival Strategies" of Pauper Households in London's West End During the Early Eighteenth Century. International Review of Social History, Supplement 8 (2001), pp. 47-69.
  • Boulton, Jeremy. The Poor Among the Rich: Paupers and the Parish, in the West End, 1600-1724. In Griffiths, Paul and Jenner, Mark S. R., eds, Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London. Manchester, 2000, pp. 195-223.
  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010.
  • Schwarz, L.D. London, 1700-1840. In Clark, Peter, ed., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, Vol. 2. Cambridge, 2000, pp. 641-72.
  • Schwarz, L.D. London in the Age of Industrialisation: Entrepreneurs, Labour Force and Living Conditions, 1700–1850. Cambridge, 2004.

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St Luke's Chelsea, Workhouse Register

  • Boulton, Jeremy. The Poor Among the Rich: Paupers and the Parish, in the West End, 1600-1724. In Griffiths, Paul and Jenner, Mark S. R., eds, Londinopolis: Essays in the Cultural and Social History of Early Modern London. Manchester, 2000, pp. 195-223.
  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010.
  • Hitchcock, Tim and Black, John, eds. Chelsea Settlement and Bastardy Examinations, 1733-66. London Record Society, 33, 1999 for 1996.
  • Hitchcock, Tim. 'Unlawfully begotten on her body': Illegitimacy and the Parish Poor in St Luke's Chelsea. In Hitchcock, Tim, King, Peter, and Sharpe, Pamela, eds, Chronicling Poverty: The Voices and Strategies of the English Poor, 1640-1840. Basingstoke, 1997, pp. 70-86.

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St Botolph Aldgate Poll Tax Assessments

  • Glass, D. V. Socio-Economic Status and Occupations in the City of London at the End of the Seventeenth Century. In Hollander, A.E. and Kellaway, William, eds, Studies in London History presented to P.E. Jones. 1969, pp.385-87.
  • Schurer, Kevin and Arkell, Tom, eds. Surveying the People: The Interpretation and use of Document Sources for the Study of Population in the Later Seventeenth Century. Oxford, 1992.
  • Spence, Craig. London in the 1690s: A Social Atlas. 2000.

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Four Shillings in the Pound Aid

  • Earle, Peter. A City Full of People: Men and Women of London 1650-1750. 1994.
  • Glass, D.V. Socio-Economic Status and Occupations in the City of London at the End of the Seventeenth Century. In A.E. Hollander and William Kellaway, eds, Studies in London History presented to P.E. Jones. 1969, pp. 385-87.
  • Power, M.J. The Social Topography of Restoration London'. In Beier, A. L. and Finlay, Rogers, eds, London 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis. 1986, pp. 199-223.
  • Schurer, Kevin and Arkell, Tom, eds. Surveying the People: The Interpretation and use of Document Sources for the Study of Population in the Later Seventeenth Century. Oxford, 1992.
  • Spence, Craig. London in the 1690s: A Social Atlas. 2000.

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Marriage Duty Assessments for St Botolph Aldgate, 1695

  • Jones, P. E. and Judges, A. V. London Population in the late Seventeenth Century. Economic History Review, 6 (1935), pp. 58-62.
  • Merry, Mark and Baker, Philip. "For the house her self and one servant": Family and Household in Later Seventeenth-Century London. London Journal, 34, 3 (2009), pp. 205-233.
  • Schurer, Kevin and Arkell, Tom, eds. Surveying the People: The Interpretation and Use of Document Sources for the Study of Population in the Later Seventeenth Century. Oxford, 1992.

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The Westminster Historical Database

  • Brewer, John. Party Ideology and Popular Politics at the Accession of George III. Cambridge, 1976.
  • Corfield, P.J., Harvey, C. and Green, E.M. Westminster Man: Charles James Fox and his Electorate, 1780-1806. Parliamentary History, 20 (2001), pp. 157-85.
  • Harvey, Charles; Green, Edmund and Corfield, Penelope. The Westminster Historical Database: Voters, Social Structure and Electoral Behaviour. Bristol, 1998.
  • Harvey, Charles; Green, Edmund and Corfield, Penelope. Continuity, Change, and Specialization within Metropolitan London: The Economy of Westminster, 1750-1820. Economic History Review, New Series, 52, No. 3 (1999), pp. 469-493.
  • O’Gorman, Frank. Voters, Patrons and Parties: the Unreformed Electoral System of Hanoverian England, 1734-1832. Oxford, 1989.
  • Rogers, Nicholas. Whigs and Cities: Popular Politics in the Age of Walpole and Pitt. Oxford, 1989.

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Income Tax Payments

  • Daunton, Martin. What is Income? In Tiley, John, ed., Studies in the History of Tax Law. Oxford, 2004, pp. 3-14.
  • Emory, Meade. The Early English Income Tax: A Heritage for the Contemporary. American Journal of Legal History, 9 (1965), pp. 286-319.
  • Harris, Peter. Income Tax in Common Law Jurisdictions: From the Origins to 1820. Cambridge, 2006.

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Prerogatory Court of Canterbury Wills

  • Scott, Miriam. Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills and Other Probate Records. Kew, 1997.
  • Grannum, Karen and Taylor, Nigel. Wills and Probate Records. Kew, 2009.
  • Arkell, Tom, Evans, Nesta and Goose, Nigel, eds. When Death Do Us Part: Understanding and Interpreting the Probate Records of Early Modern England. Hatfield, 2000.

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Boys Recruited into the Marine Society, 1770-75, 1780-83, 1792-93, 1800-04

  • Crawford, Patricia. Parents of Poor Children in England, 1580-1800. Oxford, 2010.
  • Andrew, Donna T. Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century. Princeton, 1989.
  • Cunningham, Hugh. The Children of the Poor: Representations of Childhood since the Seventeenth Century. Oxford, 1991.
  • Floud, Roderick, Wachter, Kenneth, and Gregory, Annabel. Height, Health and History: Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom, 1750-1980. Cambridge, 1990.
  • Lloyd, Sarah. Charity and Poverty in England, c.1680-1820. Manchester, 2009.
  • Payne, Dianne. Rhetoric, Reality and the Marine Society. London Journal, 30, 2 (2005), pp. 66-84.
  • Peitsch, Roland. Urchins for the Sea: The Story of the Marine Society in the Seven Years War. Journal for Maritime Research, December 2000, n.p.
  • Rodgers, N.A.M. The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, Volume 2, 1649-1815. 2004.
  • Taylor, James Stephen . Jonas Hanway, Founder of the Marine Society: Charity and Policy in Eighteenth-Century Britain. 1985.
  • Voth, H. J. and Leunig, T. Did Smallpox Reduce Height? Stature and the Standard of Living in London, 1770-1873. Economic History Review. 49, 1 (1996), pp. 541-60.

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British East India Company: Salaries Paid to 'Clerks', 1760-1820

  • Bayley, C.A. Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire. Cambridge, 1988.
  • Boot, H. M. Government and the Colonial Economies. Australian Economic History Review, 38, 1 (1998), pp. 74-101.
  • Boot, H.M. Real Incomes of the British Middle Class, 1760 – 1850. Economic History Review, 52 (1999), pp. 638-68.
  • Bowen, H.V. Revenue and Reform: The Indian Problem in British Politics, 1757-1813. Cambridge, 1991.
  • Chaudhuri, K.N. The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company 1600-1760. Cambridge, 1978.
  • Lawson, Philip. The East India Company: A History. 1993.
  • Marshall, P.J. Bengal: The British Bridgehead, Eastern India, 1740-1828. The New Cambridge History of India. Cambridge, 1987.

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Fire Insurance Registers

  • Cockerell, H.A.L. and Green, E. The British Insurance Business, 1547-1970. 2nd edn, Sheffield, 1994.
  • Jenkins, D. T. The Practice of Insurance Against Fire 1750-1840. In Westall, O. M., ed., The Historian and the Business of Insurance. Manchester, 1984, pp. 9-38.
  • Jones, E. L., Porter, S. and Turner, M. A Gazetteer of English Urban Fire Disasters, 1500-1900. Norwich, 1984.
  • Pearson, Robin. Insuring the Industrial Revolution: Fire Insurance in Great Britain, 1700-1850. Aldershot, 2004.
  • Schwarz, Leonard D. and Jones, L. J. Wealth, Occupations and Insurance in the Late 18th Century: The Policy Registers of the Sun Fire Office. Economic History Review. 2nd ser., 36 (1983), pp. 365-73.
  • Supple, Barry. Insurance in British History. In Westall, O. M., ed., The Historian and the Business of Insurance. Manchester, 1984, pp. 1-8.

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London and Westminster Directory, 1774

  • Barry, Jonathan, Brooks, Christopher, eds. The Middling Sort of People: Culture, Society and Politics in England, 1550-1800. Basingstoke, 1994.
  • Corfield, Penelope J. with Serena Kelly. "Giving Directions to the Town": The Early Town Directories. Urban History Yearbook, 1984, pp. 22-35.
  • Corfield, Penelope J. Power and the Professions in Britain 1700-1850. 1995.
  • Harvey, Charles, Green, Edmund and Corfield, Penelope. The Westminster Historical Database: Voters, Social Structure and Electoral Behaviour. Bristol, 1998.
  • Harvey, Charles, Green, Edmund and Corfield, Penelope. Continuity, Change, and Specialization within Metropolitan London: The Economy of Westminster, 1750-1820. Economic History Review, New Series, 52, 3 (1999), pp. 469-493.
  • Jacob, W. M. The Clerical Profession in the Long Eighteenth Century, 1680-1840. Oxford, 2007.
  • Lemmings, David. Professors of the Law: Barristers and English Legal Culture in the Eighteenth Century Place. Oxford, 2000.
  • O'Day, Rosemary. The Professions in Early Modern England, 1450-1800: Servants of the Commonweal. Harlow, Essex, 2000.
  • O'Day, Rosemary. Social Change in the History of Education: Perspectives on the Emergence of Learned Professions in England, c.1500-1800. History of Education, 36, 4-5 (2007), pp. 409-28
  • Porter, Roy. Bodies Politic: Disease, Death and Doctors in Britain, 1650-1900. 2001.
  • Prest, Wilfrid Robertson, ed. The Professions in Early Modern England ( 1987).
  • Schwarz, Leonard D. London in the Age of Industrialisation: Entrepreneurs, Labour Force and Living Conditions, 1700-1850. Cambridge, 1992.

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Old Bailey Associated Records

  • Bell, I. A. Literature and Crime in Augustan England. 1991.
  • Hawkins, David T. Criminal Ancestors: A Guide to Historical Criminal Records in England and Wales Stroud, 1992.
  • McKenzie, A. Tyburn's Martyrs: Execution in England 1675-1775. 2007.
  • Rawlings, Philip. Drunks, Whores and Idle Apprentices: Criminal Biographies of the Eighteenth Century. 1992.

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Online Resources

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